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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

“中国政府将GDP增长目标设定为7.5%,并努力将通胀保持在可控水平,很令人欣慰。这不仅会保持中国经济的繁荣,还将促进地区经济和全球经济的发展,印尼也将从中受益。”Imron Cotan, Indonesian ambassador to China

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直到最近,Weill Cornell Medical College的科学家们至少在老鼠和猴子身上实现了这一点。这种人造视网膜,它的芯片可以将画面转换为电子信号,而它的微型投影机可以将电子信号转化为投影光线。
2013年机器人世界杯足球赛当地时间6月30日在荷兰落幕。经过激烈角逐,中国队以3∶2击败卫冕冠军东道主埃因霍温队夺冠。
只跟那些能凸显你聪明的人做朋友,哪怕他们觉得你坏坏哒。

The American share in the total drugspending is about one third. IMS experts estimate that in 2014 it will rise11.7 percent. The UShas particularly high prices, according to the report, but drug makers defendthis by citing the soaring cost of new medicine development.
Homing in on a brand that excels at making the kind of vehicle you’re looking for is an efficient way to focus your shopping and find the best car for you. The 2016 U.S. News Best Vehicle Brand awards recognize the best brands in four categories: Cars, SUVs, Trucks and Luxury.
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Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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6. Miranda Kerr
这款智能产品的使用可以追溯到1800年,但在2016年它才变得“智能”。 Meet Peggy,这种洗衣挂钩能够“帮助你减轻负担”,它会在洗衣机洗好衣服的时候提醒你,并告诉你天气是否适宜晾晒衣服。该装置连接到您的手机,它会在天气变化或是需要转移晾衣服的地方时发消息提醒你。
……在面试过程中,简历中的弥天大谎被识破。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

排行榜上前7所院校还是老面孔。澳大利亚新南威尔士大学商学院(UNSW Business School of Australia)澳大利亚管理研究生院(AGSM)首次上榜,排在第八位。
According to a research report on 2016 graduates released by 51job.com, a leading job hunting platform in China, 52.11% of college graduates found employment or started their own business.
adj. 准确的,精确的

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • The alternative analysis is that the shift we have seen over the past three years is the beginning of a long-term structural shift which will see energy prices materially lower in real terms in the next half century than in the last. Those who take this view believe, to put it very simply, that the likely growth in supply is stronger than the growth in demand.
    一些科学家说,2014年成为创下气温纪录的一年,最值得注意的一点是该年度并没有发生强大的厄尔尼诺现象,一种由于太平洋将巨大的热量输送到大气层所造成的大尺度天气模式。

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 辽宁远东新型管业发展有限公司创新发展纪实, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

家居卖场开启“全渠道”模式 O2O时代来临

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    Bobbi's dad Anton, 28, admits that he had his concerns at first, but is now comfortable with Bobbi's routine.
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    "我认为机器会比人类更强大、更智能,但绝不会比人类更睿智。"马云如是说。“因为有一件事是肯定的:智慧、灵魂和心灵都是人类所拥有的东西,而机器永远不能享受失败、成功、友谊或爱情。”
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Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 首季财政数据 印证经济稳中有进
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 家居行业:转化思维树品牌 提升服务赢市场

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

We took further steps to implement the Internet Plus action plan and the national big data strategy.
It was Somerset Maugham who said the French Riviera is “a sunny place for shady people” – and looking around at all the 'models' in the hotel lobbies and the men in dark sunglasses who seemed to know them, I knew what he meant. Behind the festival's shiny facade, there is an unseemly side – and beneath the azure waters, a polluted mess. The French diver and environmentalist Laurent Lombard's video of the Cannes seabed strewn with waste and debris went viral before the festival began. We were assured there was no danger to swimmers, and the mayor had it cleaned up according to the Daily Mail – but the Med had certainly lost some of its sparkle.
Coca-Cola cut its sales forecast for this year as it struggles with a consumer slowdown in China, sending the drinks group’s shares down more than 3 per cent.
Their inclusion has come at the expense mainly of European companies, signalling the shift in economic power towards the east. There is only one Indian brand in the top 100 ranking — HDFC Bank. Russian, Mexican and Brazilian brands have fallen out of the ranking in the past few years — a sober reflection of the changing fortunes of these emerging markets.
Release date: 2015
受此启发,研究者和科学家们都致力于研发体积小却意义重大的科技成果。
如果这个目标真的能够实现,届时特斯拉的规模将超过林肯(Lincoln)和保时捷(Porsche)等豪车品牌的美国分支。这两个老字号豪车品牌都有更多样化的产品阵容、长期的经销商网络、成熟的营销和广告策略。特斯拉如果真的能卖出预期的数字,那么其销量的半数将来自现有的Model S轿车,其它一半则来自明年年初才会量产的Model X七座跨界车。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • The International Organization for Migration says the number of migrants and refugees entering Europe in 2015 has gone over the one million mark, the largest influx of its kind since the end of World War Two.
  • 索菲亚家居上半年盈利1.35亿 同比增长四成
  • 《花千骨》
    avoid
  • 家居行业的上半年:家具中速发展 家装成焦点
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 颁奖典礼一开始,两位主持人妙语连珠,引来场下观众阵阵喝彩。马特?戴蒙、梅丽尔?斯特里普(Meryl Streep)和乔治克?鲁尼都自然而然地成为了调侃的对象。蒂娜?费对桑德拉?布洛克(Sandra Bullock)和克鲁尼参演《地心引力》的点评引发场下一阵爆笑。
    Airlines with operations based west of the Rockies boast the fewest flights that arrive late during the holidays, according to data compiled for Forbes.com by FlightAware.
  • But the change in Wall Street’s — and Silicon Valley’s — appreciation of Mr Cook is down to more than just the 70m iPhones Apple is expected to sell this quarter or the $42bn in sales generated in the previous.
    麦肯锡将于3月宣布当选者,预计此人将对麦肯锡的发展方向产生重大影响。一些内部人士倾向于那些在快速增长领域(比如数据分析)具备专长的候选人,而其他人想要一位可以维护公司品牌的传统主义者。
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    安娜还补充道,在巴西筹办世界杯期间,巴西人民却在遭罪。由于大型建设项目造成交通拥挤,耽误了居住在城市郊区穷人的上下班时间,她认为只有富人才会在世界杯倍感享受。
  • 大师级别的老式、线性的动作电影拍摄,充满污秽、朋克、反乌托邦的澳大利亚式幽默。也是最近除玛格丽特·阿斯特伍德(Margaret Atwood)的小说之外,最好的生态-女权-社会主义作品。
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    《善地》
  • 据德国工商总会的统计数据显示,中国于2016年超越美国,首次成为德国的最大贸易市场。
    揭露好莱坞流氓的女星发起了MeToo行动,意在揭露高层性侵女性事件,表示性侵者都是“失败者”。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 楼市变局或将打破信贷投放相对均衡的规律 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

建材企业要坚守行业底线

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

雷士照明逾5亿元遭提取或冻结 现任董事会毫不知情

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

北京二手房源环比猛增三成 降价房源占了92%

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

浙民投与佳兆业“生化”危机再起

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 3. 向他人学习。
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  • 武汉发布“留汉”大学生“八折购房”细则

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 遗憾的是,随着乌拉圭在当地时间周六(6月28日)被哥伦比亚淘汰出局,本届世界杯决赛将不再是巴西和乌拉圭之间的再次对话。如果巴西杀入7月13日的决赛,对手将可能是墨西哥、荷兰、哥斯达黎加、希腊、美国、比利时、阿根廷和瑞士中的一支(译注:1/8决赛中,墨西哥与希腊分别不敌荷兰与哥斯达黎加,憾别世界杯)。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Of course, the recovery of the job market has been, and probably will remain, incremental. Job growth needs to be much stronger to actually make a big dent in unemployment, which remains high at 7.9%, though down from 10% three years ago.[qh]
    2005年,戴维森发现自己总是得跟在一岁大的儿子杰克后面,收拾他随处乱扔的儿童吸管杯。于是,她从塔吉特(Target)上买了一台缝纫机,为儿童吸管杯设计出一个类似皮带的奇妙装置——SippiGrip。但她并没有很快实现自己的创业梦想——她加入了微软人力资源团队,与X-Box部门合作。2007年,她在全国性贸易展上推出了SippiGrip。幸运的是,塔吉特邀请她参加2008年父母发明产品计划。目前,戴维森的产品已经在沃尔玛(Walmart)、婴儿反斗城(Babies "R" Us)和亚马逊等零售商开卖。
    vt. 插于,刺入,竖起<
  • 世界知识产权组织总干事弗朗西斯·居里表示:“投资创新是提高长期经济增长的关键。在当前的经济形势下,发现新的增长来源并利用全球创新所带来的机会是所有利益相关者的优先事项。”

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University in Washington DC returns to the custom ranking in 15th place after dropping out last year because of a low survey response rate from clients. Only three schools enter the custom ranking for the first time, including London’s Cass Business School in 60th place.
  • 3万元定制家具有划痕退货遭拒 难以二次出售是主因
  • 学员平均年龄:费城班33岁,旧金山班36岁

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 12月15个热点城市房价环比走稳 调控效果继续显现
  • Household substance abuse
  • 2017年上市房企规模均值超千亿 负债率处在高位
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

立邦绿建·无忧之旅纵贯十六城 助推中国建筑保温隔热行业标准化

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 2017洁具行业“墙内俏,墙外香”
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 安徽省工商局抽查网售装饰建材商品 九成合格
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

这就真相了,我同意。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

1.The Military Parade
2015年最需要迎头赶上的品牌:由于产品线陈旧,大众今年的销量下降了11%,影响了费迪南德o皮切的“称霸全球”计划。沃尔沃的销量则下跌了17%,自从被中国车企收购后,该公司至今还没有任何进步。
Of the 6,527 new rentals scheduled to hit the market in Brooklyn next year, 1,442 are in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Bushwick and Clinton Hill, all considered off the beaten path not that long ago, according to data provided by Citi Habitats.
President Xi Jinping is also a well-known football fan, who has repeatedly voiced his support for the sport's development in China.
stre力量,ngthen-加强力量
当支持者在周一早些时候涌向总督大楼,一人高喊,"今天,新的波多黎各开始了!" 随着其他人的欢呼,包括那些拿着美国国旗的群众。
8月12日,港口城市天津的一座非法储存危险化学品的仓库发生一连串爆炸,导致173人死亡,数百人受伤,造成的破坏景象仿佛末日来袭。此次爆炸事件提出了有关中国在快速工业化进程中安全监管松懈的严肃问题。
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10.Selfie Sticks
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Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

亚萨合莱盼盼廊坊基地升级“模范工厂”

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Are you heading to Rio for the Olympics? Will you leverage the Google Maps app on Android or iOS? I think you already have the answer.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • These molds turn regular fruits into fun shapes.
  • 财政部亮剑地方政府违规举债 发挥典型案例警示作用
  • 随着性骚扰丑闻迫使投资者反思他们支持大多由年轻白人男性所创项目的习惯,新的一年硅谷的女性创始人将筹集更多资金。被不光彩传言缠身的一些男性创始人,其初创企业将无法再拿到融资,即使它们是很好的投资项目。
  • 温州市质监局抽查10批次外墙涂料产品 全部合格
  • 这部电影也是为了纪念2005年电视剧发行十周年而拍摄的。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 解密“日光盘”真相:低总价造就400套日光
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • [ri'septiv]
  • 科学院说:“今年的诺奖关注的是经济学的一个中心问题:如何尽可能适当地匹配不同市场主体。”

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

酒店业如何搭上“租购并举”东风

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